Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Scarlett Letter Essays - English-language Films, Free Essays The Scarlett Letter The Effective Use of Symbolism The novel, The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne is an intriguing account of a Puritan community that experiences a breakdown in beliefs. The story deals with a woman, Hester, who commits adultery with a Calvinistic minister resulting in the birth of a child (Martin 110). As compensation for her crime of passion and her refusal to name her lover, Hester is sentenced to wear an embroidered scarlet letter on her bosom. It is this letter, or secret sin, that becomes the emphasis of the novel and assumes many different roles (Martin 111). Hawthorne starts the novel by portraying the literary reality associated with the different aspects of the letter (Martin 110). From the start, Hawthorne seems to say, this is a scarlet letter; because of that, it is capable of further meaning. The letter will have to carry the burden of the tale (Martin 111). Hawthornes use of symbolism is fully developed in the multi-meanings hidden in the scarlet letter through a variety of characters. The scarlet letter represents different ideals to different people and should be given the proper consideration (Martin 114). In the Puritan community, the letter is viewed as a moral obligation to inform others of Hesters sin, one that they feel should be dragged out into the sunshine (Hawthorne 43). They believe the letter symbolizes psychological and religious truth. The Puritans are a people amongst whom religion and law were almost identical, and in whose character both were so thoroughly Foti 2 interfused, that her mildest and severest acts of public discipline were alike made venerable and awful (Hawthorne 40). It is said that meager, indeed, and cold, was the sympathy that a transgressor might look for, from such bystanders at the scaffold (Hawthorne 40). The Puritans are firmly against Hesters actions and feels that she has disgraced them along with herself. They feel that she must take responsibility for her actions. The effect of her punishment however is not what the Puritans had hoped to achieve. Hesters sin has grown from that of passion to one of purpose. Even with Hesters sympathetic attitude, she was not filled with regret and therefore the letter had not done its task (Martin 122). To the Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale, the scarlet letter contains a whole new meaning. He views the letter as a constant reminder of his sin and cowardice. His guilt continues to grow as a result of his not being able to come forth in front of the community and take responsibility for his actions. His guilt and sin become magnified by his inability to stand beside Hester at the scaffold. Dimmesdale, also is ironically charged with questioning Hester and trying to convince her of the importance of identifying her fellow sinner (Hawthorne 52). He begins to feel more and more grief and it begins to affect his mental and physical state. He soon becomes weak; however, it is believed by the community to be because of his too unreserved self-sacrifice to the labors and duties of the pastoral relation (Hawthorne 80). When Dimmesdale is believed to be near death, the community again believes it is because the world was not worthy to be any longer trodden by his feet (Hawthorne 88). Dimmesdale se ems to be haunted by Satans emissary, in the guise of old Roger Chillingworth. This diabolical Foti 3 agent had the Divine permission, for a season, to burrow into the clergymans intimacy and plot against his soul (Hawthorne 94). Chillingworth proposes to Dimmesdale that a sickness, a sore place, if we may so call it, in your spirit, hath immediately its appropriate manifestation in your bodily frame (Hawthorne 99). However, Dimmesdale denies and refuses to discuss it with him. Dimmesdale becomes weaker and weaker because by the constitution of his nature, he loved the truth, and loathed the lie, as few men ever did. Therefore, above all things else, he loathed his miserable self! (Hawthorne 105). Before Dimmesdales death, he finally confesses to his sin on the scaffold and frees his soul and conscience. Spectators have testified to seeing on the breast of the unhappy minister, a SCARLET LETTERthe very semblance of that worn by Hester Prynneimprinted in the flesh (Hawthorne 182).
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
The Friendship Story of Damon and Pythias Turn ofÃ the 20th-century storyteller James Baldwin included the story of Damon and Pythias (Phintias) in his collection of 50 famous stories children should know [See Learning Lessons From the Past]. These days, the story is more likely to appear in a collection showing the contributions of ancient gay men or on the stage, and not so much in childrens storybooks. The story of Damon and Pythias shows true friendship and self-sacrifice, as well as concern for family, even in the face of death. Perhaps its time to try to revive it. Damon and Pythias endured either the father or the same despotic ruler as Damocles of the sword hanging on a slender thread-fame, which is also in Baldwins collection. This tyrant was Dionysius I of Syracuse, an important city in Sicily, which was part of the Greek area of Italy (Magna Graecia). As is true of the story of the Sword of Damocles, we can look to Cicero for an ancient version. Cicero describes the friendship between Damon and Pythias in his De Officiis III. Dionysius was a cruel ruler, easy to run afoul of. Either Pythias or Damon, young philosophers in the school of Pythagoras (the man who gave his name to a theorem used in geometry), ran into trouble with the tyrant and wound up in prison. This was in the 5th century. Two centuries earlier there had been a Greek named Draco, an important law-giver in Athens, who had prescribed death as the penalty for theft. When asked about his seemingly extreme punishments for relatively minor crimes, Draco said he regretted there was no punishment more serious for more heinous crimes. Dionysius must have agreed with Draco since execution appears to have been the intended fate of the philosopher. It is, of course, remotely possible that the philosopher had engaged in a serious crime, but it hasnt been reported, and the reputation of the tyrant is such that it is easy to believe the worst. Before the one young philosopher was scheduled to lose his life, he wanted to put his familys affairs in orderÃ and asked leave to do so. Dionysius assumed he would run away and initially said no, but then the other young philosopher said he would take his friends place in the prison, and, should the condemned man not return, he would forfeit his own life. Dionysius agreedÃ and was then greatly surprised when the condemned man returned in time to face his own execution. Cicero doesnt indicate that Dionysius released the two men, but he was duly impressed with the friendship exhibited between the two men and wished he could join them as a third friend. Valerius Maximus, in the 1st century A.D. does say that Dionysius released them and kept them near him ever after. [See Valerius Maximus: The History of Damon and Pythias, from De Amicitiae Vinculo or read the Latin 4.7.ext.1.] Below you may read the story of Damon and Pythias in the Latin of Cicero, followed by an English translation that is in the public domain.  Loquor autem de communibus amicitiis; nam in sapientibus viris perfectisque nihil potest esse tale. Damonem et Phintiam Pythagoreos ferunt hoc animo inter se fuisse, ut, cum eorum alteri Dionysius tyrannus diem necis destinavisset et is, qui morti addictus esset, paucos sibi dies commendandorum suorum causa postulavisset, vas factus est alter eius sistendi, ut si ille non revertisset, moriendum esset ipsi. Qui cum ad diem se recepisset, admiratus eorum fidem tyrannus petivit, ut se ad amicitiam tertium adscriberent. But I am speaking here of ordinary friendships; for among men who are ideally wise and perfect such situations cannot arise.They say that Damon and Phintias, of the Pythagorean school, enjoyed such ideally perfect friendship, that when the tyrant Dionysius had appointed a day for the execution of one of them, and the one who had been condemned to death requested a few days respite for the purpose of putting his loved ones in the care of friends, the other became surety for his appearance, with the understanding that if his friend did not return, he himself should be put to death. And when the friend returned on the day appointed, the tyrant in admiration for their faithfulness begged that they would enrol him as a third partner in their friendship.M. Tullius Cicero. De Officiis. With An English Translation. Walter Miller. Cambridge. Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Mass., London, England. 1913.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Interview of a Person who Works in a Multinational Company - Essay Example He loves to watch advertisements and hates to waste time. He spends his weekends with his friends and relatives mostly. The person tries to have a consistent behavior or responses for the situations that are recurring. He is a person who likes to avoid risks. He follows a balanced budget. Explanation of the nature of the decision The nature of the decision processes will involve 5 crucial steps. They are as follows: Recognition of the problem, search for information, and evaluation of the available alternatives, decisions on purchase and behavior on post purchase. The market for a particular product can impact upon the decision making process. Some of the marketing mix processes include quality of the product, price of the product, promotion of the product and place. Now the person being interviewed watches advertisements and therefore his decision is bound to get influenced by the various promotional strategies. Moreover, he will not hop for lowest price and so will buy the product at his door step even at a slightly higher cost as he hates to waste time. Social cultural activities can also influence the purchasing decisions (Boone and Kurtz, 156). The socio cultural influences include personal influences, reference from groups, friends and social class. As the interviewed person spends time with friends and relatives his decision will probably get influenced by it as well. The number of substitute available in the market seems to affect the decision. As the person depicts a consistent behavior he would opt for the same product once bought if the product has been able to satisfy his needs. New products available in the market may not have any impact on the purchasing decisions. The person will not opt for any decision where some amount of risk is associated and he is able to realize that. Therefore, he will purchase only those products which are available for long time and share a review from the other users. He will not take any initiative to try for new alte rnatives. The variables of price, income, tastes, and prices of other goods Suppose the price of the product that the person wishes to buy falls. In that case the person under consideration will not like to buy some extra products as his requirements are limited currently. Lower prices will allow him to save more for the future and it is expected that his future family expenditure will rise. This would be a happy situation for the considered person as he is currently focused to save more. Again if the price of the product rises then he will try to shrink his demand as he follows a balanced budget. He will try and satisfy his needs within what he can buy with the amount according to the budget. If there is rise in income levels then he is supposed to save a larger proportion of it for future expenditure and will use some portion of it for his necessities. As the person is inclined only in necessities and not in luxuries he will engage himself in purchasing decisions of only the neces sary items. So the he needs to analyze the purchasing decisions and point out the necessities in order to take advantage of the situation. If there a change in tastes then the person under consideration will sacrifice some other products and will opt for the new product. As the person d not have any increase in income in this case he will no other alternative but to spend less on a certain product which
Sunday, February 2, 2020
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING ASSISTANT(TA) - Essay Example The role that a teaching assistant holds can be considered as the main essence of their presence in the education institutions. The qualifications then of teaching assistants should match the said role to be able to work efficiently and effectively for the optimum learning of the students. Thus, it is important to realize the role and responsibilities primarily to be able to present the personal qualities required of a teaching assistant. The main defining role of teaching assistants is the optimization of the learning process which is under the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s command. For that matter, the TAÃ¢â¬â¢s main responsibility is to assist the teacher. Due to the wide variety of aspects pertaining to the needs of the students, teaching assistants can assume different responsibilities. In totality, along with the responsibilities of the teacher to attain optimum learning process, the TAÃ¢â¬â¢s helps in achieving such goal (Middlesbrough Teacher Learning Centre, 2008). The responsibilities and role of the teaching assistants can be categorized as support for the student or learners, the support for the teacher, the support for the school and that for the curriculum. The primary responsibility revolves on the provision of the support to the student. Based on the said role, the welfare of the students is of utmost priority. For that matter, the needs and methods of leaning are needed to given attention. Based on the needs, the presence of great variety in characters in a particular learning environment can pose a challenge to the learning process. The teaching assistant is required to make the learning process an ease by giving attention to the specific needs of the students specifically those who have special needs. In addition, based on the defined responsibilities of a TA, one of the requirements is supporting the learning needs of the students and managing their behaviours. Included
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Inclusion, not exclusion, is the key to survival.Ã¢â¬ What does this mean? To say the least, the definition is clearly stated in The Power of One. Initially, Peekay in The Power of One was isolated by members of his family, and as a result of that he was excluded by society because of his background. Ultimately, he was excluded within his own race because of his actions throughout this story. Ã¢â¬Å"One thing got to all of them more than everything else. They couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make me cry.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Peekay was isolated by his family and suffered through deaths and losses. PeekayÃ¢â¬â¢s father died early in his life and from there on out he had to learn to live with the idea of death. The next deaths came from Granpa Chook, his mother, and Nanny. Losses continued when Doc went back to Germany, and a camp guard killed Piet. Even when he picked up all his strength as a young man, his losses continued when Maria, his love, was also killed. It just kept on adding up, and Peekay kept taking blow by blow. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t cry, Peekay. SisterÃ¢â¬â¢ll know I told you if you cry.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Next, Peekay suffered exclusion, and for him it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t much different. He was English, and the Afrikaners in his society hated him. The English took over and governed their territory. Ã¢â¬Å"I was a rooinek and a pisskop. I spoke the wrong language. And now I was obviously made differently.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, Peekay was discriminated against because of his background. For example Peekay was even whipped while hanging upside down. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing that something such as that occurred. Lastly, Peekay went through exclusion because of the way he acted. Peekay was a friend to the blacks, which was very uncommon. He even started a Saturday school in which to teach blacks to read throughout their tribes.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Each of the central characters in Ã¢â¬Å"Open SecretsÃ¢â¬ by Alice Munro and Ã¢â¬Å"Paradise LostÃ¢â¬ by John Milton are driven and sustained by the relationship between the realities of their existence and their personal ideologies. The conflict between ideology and reality is an important theme in the work of Munro and Milton and both the obvious discrepancies and the more subtle references to this define many aspects of the plot and characterisation. An examination of the reactions of characters to the restrictions placed on them by the reality in which they exist, and their perception of this reality is fundamental to understanding the ideologies which they possess. Their ideologies are the crucial influence on the experiences and eventual fates of each character. Ultimately the question of whether or not these relationships and conflicts are resolved or overcome is the key to gaining a deeper insight into the texts, and simultaneously provides the reader with evidence of the authors' own beliefs and ideologies. In Paradise Lost, Milton makes use of the ideas of contrast and opposition in order to create a text which is highly significant of his own personal ideology and, at the same time, a beautiful and intricate piece of epic poetry. The first character which the reader is able to engage with on a relatively profound level is Satan. This is not as ironic as it may seem as the title should ensure that the reader is forewarned of the fact that the main concern of the poem is going to be the story of the brief but significant triumph of evil over good (Satan's success in the temptation of Eve). From the outset Milton establishes to his readers that Satan is a colossal antagonist, with the realisation that his potential for evil and his success as a tempter are unquestionable. Milton's approach in the characterisation of Satan was definitely unorthodox at the time of writing, however, his methods are essential if the plot and characterisation is to be meaningful and believable. By rendering Satan as an attractive and awesome character, he immediately invites his readers to engage with the, as yet, only briefly mentioned characters of Adam and Eve. If the readers can find themselves taken in by Satan's attractive and inspiring rhetoric, then the successful temptation of Eve becomes not only more believable to the reader, but an inevitable outcome of the plot. Milton's characterisation, not only of Satan, but of the characters of Adam and Eve is extremely important and worthy of study. The story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, which is the main source for the poem's subject matter, is so well known as to be almost indelibly stamped upon the consciousness of Christian and, more importantly, Western Civilisation as a whole. This added depth of characterisation which permits the readers to engage with the main protagonists is essential to the greatness of this text and without it the poem would not be regarded as such an important milestone in English literature. Desmond M. Hamlet writes that in Paradise Lost Ã¢â¬Å"Satan's sin is terrible because it is a rebellion against God's love, actualised in the Son who functions in the entire poem as the indispensable creative and restorative agency for the dissemination of that love in practical and exemplary ways. Ã¢â¬ In Ã¢â¬Å"Sudden ApprehensionÃ¢â¬ , Lee A. Jacobus asserts that one of the driving forces behind Milton's personal ideology was the importance he placed on having true self knowledge. Satan is known in Christian Mythology as the great deceiver, and as the embodiment of evil in Paradise Lost. Milton ironically undercuts Satan's seemingly powerful and beautiful speeches but showing undoubtedly that Satan has succeeded unconsciously in deceiving himself. This contrasts with Adam who was born Ã¢â¬Å"self knowingÃ¢â¬ and whose natural impulse is to give thanks to god: Tell me, how may I know him, how adore, / From whom I have that thus I move and live, / And feel that I am happier than I knowÃ¢â¬ (Book 8, 250-282) The reality of Adam's existence in Paradise demands obedience to God's will, however, his behaviour is influenced by his fixation on Eve's beauty. This flaw in his ideology leads him to permit Eve to work in the garden alone, and also to co-operate with her in what leads to their fall from Paradise. Her ear leads her to the pool which deceives her on two counts, it is not Ã¢â¬Å"a liquid plainÃ¢â¬ nor Ã¢â¬Å"another skieÃ¢â¬ Aristotle wrote that the ear was the principal source of wisdom so in book 4 the reader is already being warned that eves thirst for knowledge will lead her astray. footnote *sudden apprehension by jacobus chapter 2 pg 33-34* Ã¢â¬Å"In Paradise Lost, the reader is repeatedly forced to acknowledge the unworthiness of values and ideals he had previously admiredÃ¢â¬ (Stanley E. Fish in surprised by sin; the reader in paradise lost Berkeley university of California press 1973) In Ã¢â¬Å"Poet of ExileÃ¢â¬ , Louis L. Martz writes that, in the beginning, Ã¢â¬Å"Adam and EveÃ¢â¬ ¦ have all our basic psychological qualitiesÃ¢â¬ , in short, they are made frail by their God given right to choose and their possession of free will. Ã¢â¬Å"We Ã¢â¬â the readers Ã¢â¬â were made to feel ashamed of our naive affection for the father of liesÃ¢â¬ (Sharon Achinstein) Satan as representative of the false heroic image that does not stand up against the weapons and strength of true Christianity. od as an allegory for the tyrants which Milton raged against and Satan as an allegorical representation of those who kept the tyrants in power by fighting unsuccessfully against them due to the fact that they wanted only to replace the tyrant not work for a better world. Ã¢â¬Å"Open SecretsÃ¢â¬ the title tale of Alice Munro's collection recounts the reactions of the local population to the mysterious disappearance of one of a group of local girls, Heather Bell, which took place on a hiking trip a few years prior to the story's beginning. One of the first and most poignant facts the reader learns is the lyric to the song sung by the girl hikers: Ã¢â¬Å"For the Beauty of the Earth, /For the Beauty of the Skies,? For the Love that from our Birth/ Over and around us liesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ The ambiguous meaning of the word Ã¢â¬Å"liesÃ¢â¬ is highly significant as in this story the relationships between reality and ideology are extremely difficult to define. In this short story, Munro never enlightens her readers as to what the actual reality of the situation is. By withholding the crucial details of the events surrounding Heather Bell's disappearance, Munro manipulates the reader into assuming the position and viewpoint of a character within the text, much like Milton's seductive characterisation of Satan. The reader is forced to join with the characters in the story by coming up with theories and opinion as to what actually happened. This fact, when juxtaposed with the lack of concrete evidence or proof, leads the reader to view all the theories as Ã¢â¬Å"liesÃ¢â¬ and the hikers' optimistic song becomes a symbol of the fact that no matter how innocent or horrible the reality is, its dimensions will never be known. CONCLUSIONÃ¢â¬ ¦. Jackson I. Cope, in his book, Ã¢â¬Å"The Metaphoric Structure of Paradise LostÃ¢â¬ writes, Ã¢â¬Å"The immediate and intuitive language, which frustrates the religious polemicist in discursive argument is precisely the Ã¢â¬Å"corporealÃ¢â¬ world out of which the poet shapes realityÃ¢â¬ . I feel this is an important point when reading the texts of Munro and Milton. In my opinion, as a reader, the ideology of the author is not of supreme importance. Readers are often drawn to attempt to work out the author's personal ideology through the characterisation, use of metaphor and allegory and other literary devices present in the text, however, this can arguably obscure evidence of the author's true aim Ã¢â¬â to create beautiful and engaging works of fiction. Paradise Lost and Open Secrets are representative of the work of Milton and Munro and are texts peopled with strong engaging characters which demand that the readers examine their own consciences, personal ideologies and perceptions of reality. In this sense, the greatest achievement of Munro is to engage and entertain her readers, without satisfying them with stereotypical and unremarkable romances and mysteries. Lucy Hughes-Hallett writes about Open Secrets Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"In story after story there is an intricate layered richness as one narrative is braided into another, not by dint of coincidences or revelations, but simply by Munro's insistence that every life is importantÃ¢â¬ . While Munro's ideology is somewhat revealed through her choice of plots and protagonists, the point which seems to pervade her writing is that the ideologies of the characters are the most important and it is with their personal realities and perceptions with which we should be engaging, and not hers. Critics have argued for centuries over the significance of Paradise Lost in relation to Milton's own political and religious ideologies, and while I accept that the poem does reflect Milton's views of organised religion in general, I think the allegorical function and perceived polemic is less important than his efforts to engage his readers with the characters and moral implications of the text. Milton is similar to Munro in this sense, she deals with ordinary lives and in Paradise Lost Milton deals with a familiar age old tale. Through use of characterisation and by contrasting reality with ideology, Milton gives the questions and arguments raised by this age old story a personal slant and turns the poem into a voyage of discovery for his readers. Neither Milton nor Munro set out to make their fiction easy or superficially satisfactory to their readers, however, they both deal extensively with the conflict between the realities of existence and false ideologies which is a universal theme and one which each reader can achieve some level of personal identification with. (1677) Open Secrets Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Carried AwayÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ had been in love once, with a doctor she had known in the sanatorium. Ã¢â¬ Her love was returned, eventually, costing the doctor his job. There was some harsh doubt in her mind about whether he had been told to leave the sanatorium or had left of his own accord, being weary of the entanglement. He was married, he had children. Letters had played a part that time, too. After he left, they were still writing to one another. And once or twice after she was released. Ã¢â¬Å"Then she asked him not to write anymore and he didn't. But the failure of his letters to arrive drove her out of TorontoÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ and made her take the travelling job. Then there would be only the one disappointment of the week, when she got back on Friday or Saturday night. Her last letter had been firm and stoical, and some consciousness of herself as a heroine of love's tragedy went with her around the country as she hauled her display cases up and down the stairs of small hotels and talked about Paris styles and said that her sample hats were bewitching, and drank her solitary glass of wine. If she'd had anybody to tell, though, she would have laughed at just that notion. She would have said love was all hocus-pocus, a deception, and she believed that. But at the prospect she felt a hush, a flutter along the nerves, a bowing down of sense, a flagrant prostrationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am glad to hear you do not have a sweetheart though I know that is selfish of me. I do not think you and I will ever meet again. I don't say that because I've had a dream what will happen or am a gloomy person always looking for the worst. It just seems to me it is the most probable thing to happen, though I don't dwell on it and go along every day doing the best I can to stay alive. I am not trying to worry you or get your sympathy either but just explain how the idea I won't ever see Carstairs again makes me think I can say anything I want. I guess it's like being sick with a fever. So I will say I love you. I think of you up on a stool at the Library reaching to put a book away and I come up and put my hands on your waist and lift you down, and you turning around inside my arms as if we agreed on everything. Ã¢â¬ Alice Munro Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"What is rememberedÃ¢â¬ It was the women, then, who could slip backÃ¢â¬âduring the daytime hours, and always allowing for the stunning responsibility that had been landed on them, in the matter of the childrenÃ¢â¬âinto a kind of second adolescence. A lightening of spirits when the husbands departed. Dreamy rebellion, subversive get-togethers, laughing fits that were a throwback to high school, mushrooming between the walls that the husband was paying for, in the hours when he wasn't there. In a more recent short fiction Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"What is rememberedÃ¢â¬ , Munro writes another abortive love story, quite similarly in structure to Ã¢â¬Å"Carried AwayÃ¢â¬ . The protagonist in this story is a young wife named Meriel who has a brief fling with a doctor she meets at a funeral. Meriel's ideology and perception of events are revealed in part with a short so called Ã¢â¬Å"discussionÃ¢â¬ with her husband, as he nears the end of his life. Her husband Pierre insists that the male in a love story is pleased when he is rejected by the heroine as he Ã¢â¬Å"hates loving herÃ¢â¬ , Meriel disagrees, consciously or unconsciously referring to her own perception of what she has experienced: Ã¢â¬Å"They'd have something. Their experience. Ã¢â¬ He would pretty well forget it, and she'd die of shame and rejection. She's intelligent. She knows that. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well,Ã¢â¬ said Meriel, pausing for a bit, because she felt cornered. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, Turgenev doesn't say that. He says she's totally taken aback. He says she's cold. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Intelligence makes her cold. Intelligent means cold, for a woman. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I mean in the nineteenth century. In the nineteenth century it does. Ã¢â¬ This exchange is symbolic as it shows that, through her experience, Meriel is able to engage with the heroine in the novel and reject the author's control of events. I think this is a pertinent point to take into consideration when searching for the ideological basis of Munro's work. She writes about normal people, who have strange experiences but react in ways that the reader can empathise with. Louisa in Ã¢â¬Å"Carried AwayÃ¢â¬ is described as having a rather nondescript personality and leading a life which is for the most part without high drama. The characterisation is subtle and understated. Ã¢â¬Å"The fact that he was dead did not seem to have much effect on Meriel's daydreamsÃ¢â¬ ¦ They had to wear themselves out in a way she did not control and never understood. Ã¢â¬ If she'd had anybody to tell, though, she would have laughed at just that notion. She would have said love was all hocus-pocus, a deception, and she believed that. But at the prospect she felt a hush, a flutter along the nerves, a bowing down of sense, a flagrant prostrationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He wrote that he did not expect to come homeÃ¢â¬ ¦ When the war ended, it was a while since she had heard from him. She went on expecting a letter every day and nothing came. Nothing came. She was afraid that he might have been one of those unluckiest of soldiers in the whole war Ã¢â¬â one of those killed in the last week, or on the last day, or even in the last hourÃ¢â¬ ¦ When she entered the town hall she always felt he might be there before her, leaning up against the wall awaiting her arrival. Sometimes she felt it so strongly she saw a shadow that she mistook for a man. She understood now how people believed they had seen ghosts. Whenever the door opened she expected to look up into his face. Sometimes she made a pact with herself not to look up until she had counted to tenÃ¢â¬ ¦ She had to be forgiven, didn't she, she had to be forgiven for thinking, after such letters, that the one thing that could never happen was that he wouldn't approach her, wouldn't get in touch with her at all? Never cross her threshold after such avowals?Ã¢â¬ ¦ She read a short notice of his marriage to a Miss Grace Horne. Not a girl she knew. Not a library user. There was no picture. Brown and cream piping. Such was the end, and had to be, to her romance? Ã¢â¬ Throughout Ã¢â¬Å"Carried AwayÃ¢â¬ Louisa is unlucky in her pursuit of love. She is not doomed to be a spinster throughout her life, and in fact, marries well, giving her a comfortable lifestyle and a degree of happiness. This occurs despite her previous two encounters with love which left her not overtly broken-hearted but on a subtle level, wounded. The poignant and bittersweet way in which Munro recounts the tale of Louisa's doomed romance with the Doctor from the sanatorium draws the reader still further in as it mirrors Louisa's stoical tone in breaking off the romance. And yet her belief that the mysterious soldier will one day declare his love in person is not inconsistent as despite her previous disappointment, Louisa is still eager to succumb to love: Ã¢â¬Å"If she'd had anybody to tell, though, she would have laughed at just that notion. She would have said love was all hocus-pocus, a deception, and she believed that. But at the prospect she felt a hush, a flutter along the nerves, a bowing down of sense, a flagrant prostrationÃ¢â¬ In a sense this is Louisa's Ã¢â¬Å"open secretÃ¢â¬ , as she informs the soldier, Jack Agnew, early on in their correspondence that she was once in love but that it had to be broken off. By opening herself up to him (because as the reader knows, Louisa is not generally outgoing with information) she sets herself up for an even deeper wound when she receives both the short note and the returned photograph. This is a truly upsetting moment in this unconventional love story as Louisa's thoughts, indecisions and insecurities are clearly stated. To have it returned in such a cowardly manner seems to add insult to injury. Louisa, however, remains firm in the face of adversity, even joking with an acquaintance and gently reprimanding herself for daring to believe that the soldier could have loved her : Ah, that's so, that's so! Ã¢â¬ Louisa said. Ã¢â¬Å"And what was it in my case but vanity, which deserves to get slapped down! Ã¢â¬ Her eyes were glassy and her expression roguish. Ã¢â¬Å"You don't think he'd had a good look at me any one time and thought the original was even worse than the poor picture, so he backed off? Ã¢â¬ Her gentle self mocking is not meant to induce sympathy from the reader, in the same way that Jack's belief that he would never see Carstairs again was not an attempt by him Ã¢â¬Å"to gain (her) sympathyÃ¢â¬ instead, just a simple statement of what he perceived to be a fact. His perception however, is utterly wrong, and his false ideology leads him to tell Louisa that he is in love with her. Jack clearly believes in his pessimistic ideology, as the consequences of toying with Louisa's emotions are brutally cruel otherwise, and Jack is not perceived by the reader as a cruel man. However Munro does avenge her protagonist slightly by serving Jack with one of the most ridiculous deaths and a funeral which was one of the best attended in years, not because he was so popular or well liked but because the people Ã¢â¬Å"wished to pay tribute to the sensational and tragic manner of his deathÃ¢â¬ Open SecretsÃ¢â¬ the title tale of Alice Munro's collection recounts the reactions of the local population to the mysterious disappearance of one of a group of local girls, Heather Bell, which took place on a hiking trip a few years prior to the story's beginning. One of the first and most poignant facts the reader learns is the lyric to the song sung by the girl hi kers: Ã¢â¬Å"For the Beauty of the Earth, /For the Beauty of the Skies,? For the Love that from our Birth/ Over and around us liesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ The ambiguous meaning of the word Ã¢â¬Å"liesÃ¢â¬ is highly significant as in this story the relationships between reality and ideology are extremely difficult to define. In this short story, Munro never enlightens her readers as to what the actual reality of the situation is. By withholding the crucial details of the events surrounding Heather Bell's disappearance, Munro manipulates the reader into assuming the position and viewpoint of a character within the text, much like Milton's seductive characterisation of Satan. The reader is forced to join with the characters in the story by coming up with theories and opinion as to what actually happened. This fact, when juxtaposed with the lack of concrete evidence or proof, leads the reader to view all the theories as Ã¢â¬Å"liesÃ¢â¬ and the hikers' optimistic song becomes a symbol of the fact that no matter how innocent or horrible the reality is, its dimensions will never be known. Ã¢â¬Å"They will try to make out she was some poor innocent, but the facts are dead differentÃ¢â¬ says one of the schoolgirl acquaintances of Heather Bell. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the undefined nature of evil should be seen as the ideological context of Satan's notorious inconsistency as a characterÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Satan defines his evil goalÃ¢â¬ ¦ strictly in oppositional termsÃ¢â¬ Milton was writing at the time of the emergence of a relatively new ideological situation in which ethical codes of good and evil are being reshuffled and centred, in which evil reappears with revitalised force as aÃ¢â¬ ¦ placeless agent that can find its definition not positively or inherently but only in reacting against some similarly abstract and unified concept or agent of virtue or reason. Ã¢â¬Å"On the one hand, Satan is a meta-epic characterÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Satan is castÃ¢â¬ ¦ as a stock figure of evilÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The dominant form of drama in the Satan figures as the fragmentary subject of constitutively unsatisfied desireÃ¢â¬ Some versions of PastoralÃ¢â¬ William Empson Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Empson argues that there is a coherent Satan, but that this coherence is only an impressive faiade upon which two different and quite inconsistent viewpoint are constantly superimposedÃ¢â¬ Milton characterises Satan as a creature at once attractive and evil, appealing and destructive. Satan has the accoutrements of the great leader, the attractiveness of an epic adventurer. Books 1 and 2 reveal an heroic self assertion, self reliance and self deification that we find not only exciting but with which we identify to varying degrees. Temptation does not come in an unattractive form. Milton ironically undercuts Satan's magnificence by linking him repeatedly to tyranny, deceit and destruction. Lucifer's fall comes because he refuses to accept his subordinate position. Satan's goal is Ã¢â¬Å"to equal God in powerÃ¢â¬ (5. 343) so that in effect he becomes a parody of god and especially of the son to whom he is consistently placed as a foil throughout Paradise Lost. He lies with superb skill and persuasiveness. Impressive and attractive leader. Bold military leader, resolute, resourceful, capable of inspiring a large and devoted following. Satan represents the style of life which is most attractive to mankind but that was also the root cause of human evil and misery. The magnificent pretence of Satan is both defeated and exposed when he loses the battle on the third day. God and Satan Ã¢â¬â both references to church and organised religion Satan hates God and sunlight (4. 37) and living things (4. 197) and the organisation of the cosmos (2. 938-84) in the garden of Eden he sees Ã¢â¬Å"saw undelighted all delightÃ¢â¬ (4. 286) he is determined to bring man pain instead of joy, woes instead of pleasure (4. 68-9,535) at first he expresses pity for Adam and Eve but soon recovers with a rationalisation, putting the blame on god. Ã¢â¬Å"Hell shall unfold/To entertain you two, her widest GatesÃ¢â¬ (4. 381-3) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ stronger hate,/Hate stronger, under shew of love, well feign'd /The way which to her run now I tendÃ¢â¬ (9. 491-93) Satan's approach to Eve is specious and deceptive, but is also moving and persua sive. He leads Eve to accept a flattering view of himself as a serpent and herself as a goddess. Satan urges them to Ã¢â¬Å"be as GodsÃ¢â¬ (9. 708-14) which was the same sin by which he himself had fallen. Bridge from hell to earth Ã¢â¬Å"a passage broad, / Smooth, easie, inoffensive down to hellÃ¢â¬ (10. 304-5) this fulfils Satan's plan for Ã¢â¬Å"Earth with Hell / To mingle and involveÃ¢â¬ (2. 383-84) Satan re-enters hell triumphantly with a call to the demonic hosts to rise and enter Ã¢â¬Å"into full blissÃ¢â¬ (10. 502-3) instead of ascending however they fall and are converted into serpents. This is our last direct vision of Satan in the epic, as the greatest triumph of the great perverter is itself ironically perverted. Satan's perversion of created god is itself reversed and creation renewed. Satan declares in book 1 that he intended Ã¢â¬Å"out of good still to find means of evilÃ¢â¬ (1. 165) but in the concluding book the restored and instructed Adam celebrates the providential deliverance to come by the son Ã¢â¬Å"That all this good of evil shall produce ? And evil turn to goodÃ¢â¬ (12. 470-471) The degeneration of Satan's character in paradise lost is brilliantly conceived and executed. Instead of becoming the king of heaven he becomes the king of hell, and on earth he passes through the even lower forms of vulture, cormorant, lion, tiger, toad and serpent. When he finally enters into the serpent Ã¢â¬Å"with bestial slime / This essence to incarnate and imbruteÃ¢â¬ (9. 165-66) Ã¢â¬â he stands at the farthest remove from his pretensions and in his harshest parody of god the son whose incarnation was to redeem and not to destroy man. Satan's revolt against God was freely committed however once in revolt he is no longer free but as the faithful Angel Abdiel taunts him Ã¢â¬Å"to thyself enthralledÃ¢â¬ (6. 181), enslaved to his own identification of himself with an impossible and irrational self image. As a result of this chosen enslavement he finds himself at odds not only with god but with himself and other creatures. He curse God and himself (4. 69-71) By attempting to exalt himself he repudiates his only viable mode of being, cannot fulfil himself and so Ã¢â¬Å"still unfulfilled with pain of longing pinesÃ¢â¬ (4. 511). As he admits, even while he is adored on the throne of infernal divinity Ã¢â¬Å"the lower still I fall, only supreme / In miseryÃ¢â¬ (4. 91-92). Seeking power apart from love, he declares that Ã¢â¬Å"only in destroying I find easeÃ¢â¬ and that even from the destruction that he pursues Ã¢â¬Å"worse to me redoundsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"torment within me, as from the hateful siege / Of contrariesÃ¢â¬ (9. 128-9, 120-22) After asserting his hatred of god and himself he recognises that Ã¢â¬Å"which way I fly is hell; myself am hellÃ¢â¬ (4. 75) All good becomes bane to him but he refuse to repudiate his pride and so repentance is out of the question for him (4. 98 Ã¢â¬â 101). He is entirely consistent in his dedication Ã¢â¬Å"to waste (god's) whole creation or possessÃ¢â¬ it, and since he cannot possess it, he commits himself to its destruction (2. 365). The one promise he keeps is his bond to sin and death that Ã¢â¬Å"all things shall be your preyÃ¢â¬ (2. 844) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ torment within me, as from the hateful siege / Of contrariesÃ¢â¬ By his self deification and by his persistent strategy of domination and destruction, Satan creates the essential conditions of hell ; what god provides in hell itself is an abode suitable to Satan's free choice. It is not a question of real fire but the anguish and torment of a self chosen alienation from god (Calvinist theory) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ from hell / One step no more than from himselfÃ¢â¬ could Satan fly, and that hell Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ always in him burnes / Though in mid Heav'nÃ¢â¬ (4. 21-2, 9. 467-8) Ã¢â¬Å"We Ã¢â¬â the readers Ã¢â¬â were made to feel ashamed of our naive affection for the father of liesÃ¢â¬ (Sharon Achinstein) Satan as complete contradiction in terms. 200 Satan as representative of Milton's ideology Ã¢â¬â contrast with the son. 200 Satan as a character is doomed to fail in his quest to become ruler of heaven. On the third day of his battle with The Son, he is defeated. If the reader assumes that Milton was illuminating his own ideology through the character of Satan then there are a few interesting points to note. The Son is willing to sacrifice his life in order to improve the conditions humanity must endure after their fall from grace. This ideology contrasts directly with that of Satan, who states in Book 9 Ã¢â¬Å"only in destroying I find easeÃ¢â¬ . The Son is the embodiment of goodness and self-sacrificing virtue in Paradise Lost (Divine compassion, visibly appear'd/ Love without end, and without measure graceÃ¢â¬ ) and his ideology triumphs over the false ideology of Satan. Satan and God are both aspects of the tyrannical power that Milton raged against throughout his lifetime. The false heroism of Satan is seen by some critics as an allegorical representation of the hypocrisy of those who fought against tyranny with no alternative world order in mind, those who wished to depose tyrants in order to assume this position for themselves. While the Son is unequivocally moral and good, God is depicted in a less human way, as tyrannical though not in an overtly bad way, I think this is symbolic of Milton's ideology, he did not believe that ideological theory by itself was worthy of praise, but that physical action should accompany any ideology which wished to be taken seriously Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot praise a fugitive and uncloistered virtue, unexercised and unbreathedÃ¢â¬ (Milton, The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce). Therefore the Son functions not only as a symbol of divine good, but also as an example that possession of a compassionate and virtuous ideology are only worthy if teamed with real sacrifice and meaningful action. Louisa Ã¢â¬â the reality of her situation, the reality of Maureen's situation, the reality or Meriel's situation. Their perceptions of these realities the significance of these perceptions on their fates and their experiences.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 698 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/08/12 Category Law Essay Level High school Tags: Women's Suffrage Essay Did you like this example? Women fought so they would be able to vote in the elections. The Womens Suffrage movement started in 1848. Suffragists are people, mainly women who advocate for womens rights. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Women Fought so They Would be Able to Vote in the Elections" essay for you Create order For years, womens suffrage supporters continued to educate anyone about the importance of womens suffrage. Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and other suffragists distributed petitions and pushed Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to enfranchise women. Some campaigners in the movement wanted to pass refine regulation. A lot of politicians werent happy and wouldnt listen to a deprived group. So women realized that this is an even bigger problem that needed to be fixed. People didnt listen to them, so they wanted to win the right to vote better than ever. Also, thats when the womens suffrage became a massive establishment. The goals for this movement are for women to achieve the rights to vote by means of a Congressional amendment to the Constitution and to support womens rights (Timeline). Its unfair that women were just supposed to sit around at home, doing the cooking, laundry and cleaning up. Women should have the privileges to do what men can do because they have worked as hard and they deserve the same rights. Womens suffrage activists battled for years so that this organization would be accomplished. Susan B. Anthony was one of the majorly known suffragists and she basically became the face of the womens suffrage movement. She has traveled around the world to give her speeches, organizing petitions and created a local womens rights organization (Susan). She has fought for womens rights for a long time. She always educated other people with her speeches. Susan had the knowledge that womens suffrage was needed to be fought for. She always tried to do whatever she could to help the movement. The person that inspired her to start fighting for womens rights was Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Anthony was actually convinced to join the womens rights movement by a speech done by Lucy Stone in 1852 (Susan). After that, she has attended conventions to persuade people of how the womens suffrage matters. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a feminist and fought for womens suffrage. Even though some people thought that she took other peoples work in the womens rights movement at least she was pushing those ideas out to the world to see and read (Elizabeth). From all of the publicity, she has attracted a lot of peoples attention to care about womens rights. Stanton and Mott did almost everything together including working in the conventions. They would hire agents, glow petitions, gather the locals, and try to obtain the press and viewers. Lucretia Mott and her husband attended a convention that refused to allow women to be full participants. Going to that convention led her to join the calling with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and from that point on she devoted all her time to womens rights. Later on published her powerful Discourse on Woman (Lucretia). Like all the women Ive talked about, Lucretia has also fought for womens suffrage for a while. Over the years, she was very committed to going to every single womens suffrage convention. In 1878, the womens suffrage amendment was first introduced to congress (Timeline). Having the amendment introduced to the Congress was one of the movements accomplishments. Susan B. Anthony wrote the federal women suffrage amendment that was introduced to Congress and passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate. In 1919, it was sent to the states for ratification. August 26, 1920, was the biggest day for women all over the world. The 19th Amendment to the Constitution, granting women the right to vote, is signed into law (Timeline). Some people believe that the activities and the campaigns of the suffragist earned women the vote in 1918. Others would argue that their establishment made the public realize that women could be doing other things apart from looking after their children. We can all agree that theres no point on not allowing women to vote. Actually allowing women to vote would widen the perspective on things. Permitting womens suffrage doesnt hurt anyone. Men just want the authority which is not fair. Women should have the rights to do what men can do.